If bad times lie ahead of us, we should remember while they last the slow march of man, chequered in the past by devastations and retrogressions, but always resuming the movement towards progress. Spinoza, who was one of the wisest of men and who lived consistently in accordance with his own wisdom, advised men to view passing events ‘under the aspect of eternity’. Those who can learn to do this will ﬁnd a painful present much more bearable than it would otherwise be. They can see it as a passing moment – a discord to be resolved, a tunnel to be traversed. The small child who has hurt himself weeps as if the world contained nothing but sorrow, because his mind is conﬁned to the present. A man who has learned wisdom from Spinoza can see even a lifetime of suﬀering as a passing moment in the life of humanity. And the human race itself, from its obscure beginning to its unknown end, is only a minute episode in the life of the universe.
What may be happening elsewhere we do not know, but it is improbable that the universe contains nothing better than ourselves. With increase of wisdom our thoughts acquire a wider scope both in space and in time. The child lives in the minute, the boy in the day, the instinctive man in the year. The man imbued with history lives in the epoch. Spinoza would have us live not in the minute, the day, the year or the epoch but in eternity. Those who learn to do this will ﬁnd that it takes away the frantic quality of misfortune and prevents the trend towards madness that comes with overwhelming disaster. He spent the last day of his life telling cheerful anecdotes to his host. He had written: “The wise man thinks less about death than about anything else,” and he carried out this precept when it came to his own death.
I do not mean that the wise man will be destitute of emotion – on the contrary, he will feel friendship, benevolence, and compassion in a higher degree than the man who has not emancipated himself from personal anxieties. His ego will not be a wall between him and the rest of mankind. He will feel, like Buddha, that he cannot be completely happy while anybody is miserable. He will feel pain – a wider and more diﬀused pain than that of the egoist – but he will not ﬁnd the pain unendurable. He will not be driven by it to invent comfortable fairy-tales which assure him that the suﬀerings of others are illusory. He will not lose poise and self-control. Like Milton’s Satan, he will say:
The mind is its own place, and in itself
Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven.
Above all, he will remember that each generation is trustee to future generations of the mental and moral treasure that man has accumulated through the ages. It is easy to forget the glory of man. When King Lear is going mad he meets Edgar, who pretends to be mad and wears only a blanket. King Lear moralizes: “Unaccommodated, man is no more but such a poor, bare, forked animal as thou art.”
This is half of the truth. The other half is uttered by Hamlet:
“What a piece of work is a man! how noble in reason! how inﬁnite in faculty! In form and moving how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension how like a god!”
…Every one of us can enlarge his mind, release his imagination, and spread wide his aﬀection and benevolence. And it is those who do this whom ultimately mankind reveres. The East reveres Buddha, the West reveres Christ. Both taught love as the secret of wisdom. The earthly life of Christ was contemporary with that of the Emperor Tiberius, who spent his life in cruelty and disgusting debauchery. Tiberius had pomp and power; in his day millions trembled at his nod. But he is forgotten by historians.
Those who live nobly, even if in their day they live obscurely, need not fear that they will have lived in vain. Something radiates from their lives, some light that shows the way to their friends, their neighbors – perhaps to long future ages. I ﬁnd many men nowadays oppressed with a sense of impotence, with the feeling that in the vastness of modern societies there is nothing of importance that the individual can do. This is a mistake. The individual, if he is ﬁlled with love of mankind, with breadth of vision, with courage and with endurance, can do a great deal.
As geological time goes, it is but a moment since the human race began and only the twinkling of an eye since the arts of civilization were ﬁrst invented. In spite of some alarmists, it is hardly likely that our species will completely exterminate itself. And so long as man continues to exist, we may be pretty sure that, whatever he may suﬀer for a time, and whatever brightness may be eclipsed, he will emerge sooner or later, perhaps strengthened and reinvigorated by a period of mental sleep. The universe is vast and men are but tiny specks on an insigniﬁcant planet. But the more we realize our minuteness and our impotence in the face of cosmic forces, the more astonishing becomes what human beings have achieved.
It is to the possible achievements of man that our ultimate loyalty is due, and in that thought the brief troubles of our unquiet epoch become endurable. Much wisdom remains to be learned, and if it is only to be learned through adversity, we must endeavor to endure adversity with what fortitude we can command. But if we can acquire wisdom soon enough, adversity may not be necessary and the future of man may be happier than any part of his past.
-The New York Times Magazine, September 3, 1950